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Joseph B. Gurman Normal Joseph B. Gurman 1 2001-02-05T16:41:00Z 2001-02-05T16:43:00Z 1 45 259 NASA GSGC 2 1 318 9.2511 800x600 0 0 One hour of a coronal mass ejection on Feb. 26-27, 2000 taken by EIT 195Å. A CME blasts into space a billion tons of particles travelling millions of miles an hour.  This particular  CME led to the "lightbulb- shaped" images seen by LASCO's C2 and C3 instruments on Feb. 27th and featured on our "Hot Shots" page.
Joseph B. Gurman Normal...
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Description Joseph B. Gurman Normal Joseph B. Gurman 1 2001-02-05T16:41:00Z 2001-02-05T16:43:00Z 1 45 259 NASA GSGC 2 1 318 9.2511 800x600 0 0 One hour of a coronal mass ejection on Feb. 26-27, 2000 taken by EIT 195Å. A CME blasts into space a billion tons of particles travelling millions of miles an hour.  This particular  CME led to the "lightbulb- shaped" images seen by LASCO's C2 and C3 instruments on Feb. 27th and featured on our "Hot Shots" page.
Twisting prominence. An EIT 304Å image of a large, twirling prominence taken on Jan. 18, 2000. Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended in the Sun's hot, thin corona. At times, they can erupt, escaping the Sun's atmosphere.
Twisting prominence. An...
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Description Twisting prominence. An EIT 304Å image of a large, twirling prominence taken on Jan. 18, 2000. Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended in the Sun's hot, thin corona. At times, they can erupt, escaping the Sun's atmosphere.
An extensive erupting prominence taken on 15 May, 2001 -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended Joseph B. Gurman Normal Joseph B. Gurman 1 0 2001-06-13T15:55:00Z 2001-06-13T15:55:00Z 1 61 353 NASA GSGC 2 1 433 9.2511 800x600 0 0 An extensive erupting prominence taken on 15 May, 2001 -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended in the Sun's hot, thin corona. At times, they can erupt, escaping the Sun's atmosphere. Emission in this spectral line of EIT 304Å shows the upper chromosphere at a temperature of about 60,000 degrees K. The hottest areas appear almost white, while the darker red areas indicate cooler temperatures.
An extensive erupting p...
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Description An extensive erupting prominence taken on 15 May, 2001 -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended Joseph B. Gurman Normal Joseph B. Gurman 1 0 2001-06-13T15:55:00Z 2001-06-13T15:55:00Z 1 61 353 NASA GSGC 2 1 433 9.2511 800x600 0 0 An extensive erupting prominence taken on 15 May, 2001 -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended in the Sun's hot, thin corona. At times, they can erupt, escaping the Sun's atmosphere. Emission in this spectral line of EIT 304Å shows the upper chromosphere at a temperature of about 60,000 degrees K. The hottest areas appear almost white, while the darker red areas indicate cooler temperatures.
A bright solar flare is captured by the EIT 195Å instrument on 1998 May 2. A solar flare (a sudden, rapid, and intense variation in brightness) occurs when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released, launching material outward at millions of km per hour. The Sun?s magnetic fields tend to restrain each other and force the buildup of tremendous energy, like twisting rubber bands, so much that they eventually break. At some point, the magnetic lines of force merge and cancel in a process known as magnetic reconnection, causing plasma to forcefully escape from the Sun.
A bright solar flare is...
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Description A bright solar flare is captured by the EIT 195Å instrument on 1998 May 2. A solar flare (a sudden, rapid, and intense variation in brightness) occurs when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released, launching material outward at millions of km per hour. The Sun?s magnetic fields tend to restrain each other and force the buildup of tremendous energy, like twisting rubber bands, so much that they eventually break. At some point, the magnetic lines of force merge and cancel in a process known as magnetic reconnection, causing plasma to forcefully escape from the Sun.
LASCO C2 image taken at 23:01 hours UT on 21 Aug 96. In this picture of the normal K-corona (or electron corona, seen by the eye at eclipses), we see bright streamers on the east (left) limb, which are extensions of the faint, streamlike features seen in the C1 images. On the west (right) limb, the equatorial 'streamer,' quite usual at this time in the sunspot cycle, has brightened suddenly, with outwardgushing plasma, while above the horizontal streamer, a twisted mass of ionized gas, expelled from the lower atmosphere, and contorted by the magnetic fields that hold it together, is seen stretching across the field of view, from somewhere beneath the occulting disk, out to more than three million kilometers above the Sun's visible surface.
LASCO C2 image taken at...
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Description LASCO C2 image taken at 23:01 hours UT on 21 Aug 96. In this picture of the normal K-corona (or electron corona, seen by the eye at eclipses), we see bright streamers on the east (left) limb, which are extensions of the faint, streamlike features seen in the C1 images. On the west (right) limb, the equatorial 'streamer,' quite usual at this time in the sunspot cycle, has brightened suddenly, with outwardgushing plasma, while above the horizontal streamer, a twisted mass of ionized gas, expelled from the lower atmosphere, and contorted by the magnetic fields that hold it together, is seen stretching across the field of view, from somewhere beneath the occulting disk, out to more than three million kilometers above the Sun's visible surface.
ERNE/HED measurements of a ring-like anisotropy of 16-20 MeV protons accelerated by an IP-shock on 11 August 2000. The instrument's angular resolution enables it to see far more accurate directional intensity distributions than any other particle instrument in this energy scale. To the area outside the HED viewcone (marked with a semi-circular boundary) an estimate of the distribution is drawn, based on the high resolution pitch-angle distribution measured by the instrument.
ERNE/HED measurements o...
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Description ERNE/HED measurements of a ring-like anisotropy of 16-20 MeV protons accelerated by an IP-shock on 11 August 2000. The instrument's angular resolution enables it to see far more accurate directional intensity distributions than any other particle instrument in this energy scale. To the area outside the HED viewcone (marked with a semi-circular boundary) an estimate of the distribution is drawn, based on the high resolution pitch-angle distribution measured by the instrument.
EIT 304Å image captures a sweeping prominence -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended in the Sun's hot, thin corona. At times, they can erupt, escaping the Sun's atmosphere. Emission in this spectral line shows the upper chromosphere at a temperature of about 60,000 degrees K. Every feature in the image traces magnetic field structure. The hottest areas appear almost white, while the darker red areas indicate cooler temperatures.
EIT 304Å image captures...
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Description EIT 304Å image captures a sweeping prominence -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended in the Sun's hot, thin corona. At times, they can erupt, escaping the Sun's atmosphere. Emission in this spectral line shows the upper chromosphere at a temperature of about 60,000 degrees K. Every feature in the image traces magnetic field structure. The hottest areas appear almost white, while the darker red areas indicate cooler temperatures.
ERNE/HED measurements of an "interplanetary highway" for 17-22 MeV protons. The particles were accelerated by a major flare on 2 May 1998. To the area outside the HED the viewcone (marked with a semi-circular boundary) an estimate of the distribution is drawn, based on the high resolution pitch-angle distribution measured by the instrument.
ERNE/HED measurements o...
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Description ERNE/HED measurements of an "interplanetary highway" for 17-22 MeV protons. The particles were accelerated by a major flare on 2 May 1998. To the area outside the HED the viewcone (marked with a semi-circular boundary) an estimate of the distribution is drawn, based on the high resolution pitch-angle distribution measured by the instrument.
Large coronal mass ejection (CME) from 6 November 1997 as recorded by the LASCO C2 coronagraph at 12:36 UT.
Large coronal mass ejec...
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Description Large coronal mass ejection (CME) from 6 November 1997 as recorded by the LASCO C2 coronagraph at 12:36 UT.
EIT observation of a Moreton wave expanding across much of the Sun?s surface. The wave was promulgated by a coronal mass ejection (CME) initiation site on 12 May 1997. This "running difference" imaging technique emphasizes the changes between successive frames. The wave front travels at speeds of about 300 km/s. These images were formed in the emission lines of Fe XII near 195 Å ? this ion is formed at temperatures of about 1.5 million degrees.
EIT observation of a Mo...
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Description EIT observation of a Moreton wave expanding across much of the Sun?s surface. The wave was promulgated by a coronal mass ejection (CME) initiation site on 12 May 1997. This "running difference" imaging technique emphasizes the changes between successive frames. The wave front travels at speeds of about 300 km/s. These images were formed in the emission lines of Fe XII near 195 Å ? this ion is formed at temperatures of about 1.5 million degrees.
EIT 304Å image details many solar features and some elongated prominences -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool den EIT 304Å image details many solar features and some elongated prominences -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended in the Sun's hot, thin corona. Emission in this spectral line shows the upper chromosphere at a temperature of about 60,000 degrees K. Every feature in the image traces magnetic field structure. The hottest areas appear almost white, while the darker red areas indicate cooler temperatures. Taken December 5, 1998.
EIT 304Å image details ...
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Description EIT 304Å image details many solar features and some elongated prominences -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool den EIT 304Å image details many solar features and some elongated prominences -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended in the Sun's hot, thin corona. Emission in this spectral line shows the upper chromosphere at a temperature of about 60,000 degrees K. Every feature in the image traces magnetic field structure. The hottest areas appear almost white, while the darker red areas indicate cooler temperatures. Taken December 5, 1998.
Development of a large coronal mass ejection (CME). The CME originated from the site of a X-9.4 flare, approximately 30 degrees off the west limb of the Sun on November 6, 1997. The four photographs are composite images as seen from the C2 and the C3 coronagraph of the LASCO experiment onboard SOHO. (Field of view, C2: 6 solar radii; C3: 32 solar radii.) At 12:10 UT the magnetic flux rope CME emerges from behind the C2 occulter with a velocity of 1500 km/s. At 12:41 UT the CME has expanded into the C3 field of view. At 13:46 UT the middle part of the CME has become a large, diffuse cloud with a dark hole in the center. The two legs, which are still connected to the solar surface have been deflected away to the north and south. At the west limb the dark structure in the equatorial plane is caused by the blow-out of material out of the equatorial streamer. High energetic (E>100 MeV) protons accelerated at the site of the flare arrive at 13:46 UT at the location of SOHO and cause numerous bright points and streaks in the images. Courtesy SOHO/LASCO consortium.
Development of a large ...
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Description Development of a large coronal mass ejection (CME). The CME originated from the site of a X-9.4 flare, approximately 30 degrees off the west limb of the Sun on November 6, 1997. The four photographs are composite images as seen from the C2 and the C3 coronagraph of the LASCO experiment onboard SOHO. (Field of view, C2: 6 solar radii; C3: 32 solar radii.) At 12:10 UT the magnetic flux rope CME emerges from behind the C2 occulter with a velocity of 1500 km/s. At 12:41 UT the CME has expanded into the C3 field of view. At 13:46 UT the middle part of the CME has become a large, diffuse cloud with a dark hole in the center. The two legs, which are still connected to the solar surface have been deflected away to the north and south. At the west limb the dark structure in the equatorial plane is caused by the blow-out of material out of the equatorial streamer. High energetic (E>100 MeV) protons accelerated at the site of the flare arrive at 13:46 UT at the location of SOHO and cause numerous bright points and streaks in the images. Courtesy SOHO/LASCO consortium.
Composite of a LASCO C1 and LASCO C2 image, taken on 1 February 1996. The inner part shows the corona in the light of the green forbidden coronal line of Fe XIV, the outer (orange) part the streamer belt in the fieldofview of the LASCO C2 coronagraph.
Composite of a LASCO C1...
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Description Composite of a LASCO C1 and LASCO C2 image, taken on 1 February 1996. The inner part shows the corona in the light of the green forbidden coronal line of Fe XIV, the outer (orange) part the streamer belt in the fieldofview of the LASCO C2 coronagraph.
Large coronal mass ejection (CME) from 6 November 1997, which originated from the site of a X-9.4 flare, approximately 30 degrees off the west limb. The image shown is a composite of an EIT Fe XII 195 EUV image of the Sun (at 14:19 UT), and three images of the LASCO experiment onboard SOHO, consisting of 3 nested coronagraphs (field of view: C1: 2 solar radii, C2: 6 solar radii; C3: 32 solar radii). The image of the most inner part (LASCO C1) was taken at 14:32 UT, the middle image covering the region from 2 to 6 solar radii (LASCO C2) was taken at 14:26 UT, and the outer image covering the sky from 6 to 32 solar radii (LASCO C3) was taken at 14:12 UT. At 12:10 UT a magnetic flux rope CME emerged from behind the C2 occulter with a velocity of 1500 km/s. At 12:41 UT the CME has expanded into the C3 field of view. At 13:46 UT the middle part of the CME has become a large, diffuse cloud with a dark hole in the center. The two legs, which are still connected to the solar surface have been deflected away to the north and south. At the west limb the dark structure in the equatorial plane is caused by the blow-out of material out of the equatorial streamer. High energetic (E>100 MeV) protons accelerated at the site of the flare arrivedat the location of SOHO at 13:46 UT and caused numerous bright points and streaks in the images. Courtesy SOHO/LASCO consortium.
Large coronal mass ejec...
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Description Large coronal mass ejection (CME) from 6 November 1997, which originated from the site of a X-9.4 flare, approximately 30 degrees off the west limb. The image shown is a composite of an EIT Fe XII 195 EUV image of the Sun (at 14:19 UT), and three images of the LASCO experiment onboard SOHO, consisting of 3 nested coronagraphs (field of view: C1: 2 solar radii, C2: 6 solar radii; C3: 32 solar radii). The image of the most inner part (LASCO C1) was taken at 14:32 UT, the middle image covering the region from 2 to 6 solar radii (LASCO C2) was taken at 14:26 UT, and the outer image covering the sky from 6 to 32 solar radii (LASCO C3) was taken at 14:12 UT. At 12:10 UT a magnetic flux rope CME emerged from behind the C2 occulter with a velocity of 1500 km/s. At 12:41 UT the CME has expanded into the C3 field of view. At 13:46 UT the middle part of the CME has become a large, diffuse cloud with a dark hole in the center. The two legs, which are still connected to the solar surface have been deflected away to the north and south. At the west limb the dark structure in the equatorial plane is caused by the blow-out of material out of the equatorial streamer. High energetic (E>100 MeV) protons accelerated at the site of the flare arrivedat the location of SOHO at 13:46 UT and caused numerous bright points and streaks in the images. Courtesy SOHO/LASCO consortium.
Comet Hyakutake, as imaged by the C3 coronagraph of the Naval Research Laboratory's LASCO instrument on the SOHO spacecraft on 2 May 1996. This picture shows the comet to the north of the Sun. The bright region near the Sun is a coronal mass ejection.
Comet Hyakutake, as ima...
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Description Comet Hyakutake, as imaged by the C3 coronagraph of the Naval Research Laboratory's LASCO instrument on the SOHO spacecraft on 2 May 1996. This picture shows the comet to the north of the Sun. The bright region near the Sun is a coronal mass ejection.
he inner corona as seen by the LASCO C1 coronagraph in the light of the green forbidden coronal line of Fe XIV.Coronal structures can be seen as far as 1 million km above the solar surface.The large-scale solar magnetic field is being traced by loop systems,which are forming all around the Sun in different latitude zones, as demonstrated by the appearance of the corona above both the east and the west limbs. Three loop systems can be seen from high northern to high southern latitudes,bridging the solar equator. This magnetic configuration is known as a magnetic "quadrupole," because it has four magnetic zones, each zone bordering another of opposite polarity. Inherently,this configuration is not stable. This picture was taken on 1 February 1996, just 2 days before the coronal mass ejection shown in another figure on this page. Back [ http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/gallery/SolarCorona/index.html ]
he inner corona as seen...<a target="_blank" href="http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/gallery/SolarCorona/index.html"></a>
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Description he inner corona as seen by the LASCO C1 coronagraph in the light of the green forbidden coronal line of Fe XIV.Coronal structures can be seen as far as 1 million km above the solar surface.The large-scale solar magnetic field is being traced by loop systems,which are forming all around the Sun in different latitude zones, as demonstrated by the appearance of the corona above both the east and the west limbs. Three loop systems can be seen from high northern to high southern latitudes,bridging the solar equator. This magnetic configuration is known as a magnetic "quadrupole," because it has four magnetic zones, each zone bordering another of opposite polarity. Inherently,this configuration is not stable. This picture was taken on 1 February 1996, just 2 days before the coronal mass ejection shown in another figure on this page. Back [ http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/gallery/SolarCorona/index.html ]
MDI Partial High Resolution Dopplergram Minus Polynominal Fit This image is a portion of a MDI highresolution dopplergram and shows about 4% of the solar disk. The largescale rotation signature has been removed to clarify the smallerscale surface motions.
MDI Partial High Resolu...
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Description MDI Partial High Resolution Dopplergram Minus Polynominal Fit This image is a portion of a MDI highresolution dopplergram and shows about 4% of the solar disk. The largescale rotation signature has been removed to clarify the smallerscale surface motions.
LASCO C3 image of the large coronal mass ejection (CME) of 29 March 1998.
LASCO C3 image of the l...
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Description LASCO C3 image of the large coronal mass ejection (CME) of 29 March 1998.
MDI 45 Image Average Dopplergram Minus Polynominal Fit Subtracting the average solar rotation signal from a 45 image average of full disk dopplergrams enhances the surface motions associated with solar convection. Convective flow transports material and energy from the Sun's interior along narrow plumes. At the surface, the upwelling material then spreads out horizontally in the granulation pattern seen in this image. Little of this pattern is seen at the center of the solar disk because the motion is perpendicular to the line of sight.
MDI 45 Image Average Do...
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Description MDI 45 Image Average Dopplergram Minus Polynominal Fit Subtracting the average solar rotation signal from a 45 image average of full disk dopplergrams enhances the surface motions associated with solar convection. Convective flow transports material and energy from the Sun's interior along narrow plumes. At the surface, the upwelling material then spreads out horizontally in the granulation pattern seen in this image. Little of this pattern is seen at the center of the solar disk because the motion is perpendicular to the line of sight.
MDI Single Dopplergram The MDI instrument is designed to observe the line-of-sight motion of the Sun's photosphere, and to produce a velocity image or dopplergram, with the dominant feature being the solar rotation, which appears as a shift from dark to light across the Sun's disk. The dark colors indicate motion toward the observer.
MDI Single Dopplergram ...
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Description MDI Single Dopplergram The MDI instrument is designed to observe the line-of-sight motion of the Sun's photosphere, and to produce a velocity image or dopplergram, with the dominant feature being the solar rotation, which appears as a shift from dark to light across the Sun's disk. The dark colors indicate motion toward the observer.
Tones of the Oscillating Sun Sound waves resonate deep within the Sun, producing surface oscillations with periods near five minutes. Only waves with specific combinations of period and horizontal wavelength resonated within the Sun. The precise combinations are related to the Sun's interior structure; they produce the fine-tuned "ridges" of greater power shown in this l-nu (period versus wavelength) diagram obtained from 2 months of the SOHO/MDI Medium-l program during May/June 1996. These measurements provide a new window into the invisible interior of the Sun allowing scientists to infer the structure, composition and dynamics inside the Sun.
Tones of the Oscillatin...
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Description Tones of the Oscillating Sun Sound waves resonate deep within the Sun, producing surface oscillations with periods near five minutes. Only waves with specific combinations of period and horizontal wavelength resonated within the Sun. The precise combinations are related to the Sun's interior structure; they produce the fine-tuned "ridges" of greater power shown in this l-nu (period versus wavelength) diagram obtained from 2 months of the SOHO/MDI Medium-l program during May/June 1996. These measurements provide a new window into the invisible interior of the Sun allowing scientists to infer the structure, composition and dynamics inside the Sun.
"Lightbulb" CME. A coronal mass ejection on Feb. 27, 2000 taken by LASCO C2 and C3. A CME blasts into space a billion tons of particles travelling millions of miles an hour. This particular CME is "lightbulb- shaped" and is featured on our "Hot Shots" page.
"Lightbulb" CME. A coro...
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Description "Lightbulb" CME. A coronal mass ejection on Feb. 27, 2000 taken by LASCO C2 and C3. A CME blasts into space a billion tons of particles travelling millions of miles an hour. This particular CME is "lightbulb- shaped" and is featured on our "Hot Shots" page.
Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) images of active region loops of elements at different temperatures and wavelengths. The small square on the nearly simultaneous EIT image of the Sun indicates the field of view of CDS.
Coronal Diagnostic Spec...
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Description Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) images of active region loops of elements at different temperatures and wavelengths. The small square on the nearly simultaneous EIT image of the Sun indicates the field of view of CDS.
LASCO C3 image of the large coronal mass ejection (CME) of 20 April 1998.
LASCO C3 image of the l...
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Description LASCO C3 image of the large coronal mass ejection (CME) of 20 April 1998.
Interior Solar Cutaway and Mode Diagram This sketch illustrates how sound waves propagate through the Sun's interior. Only waves with specific combinations of period and horizontal wavelength resonated within the Sun. The precise combinations are related to the Sun's interior structure; they produce the bright, fine-tuned "ridges" of greater power shown in the l-nu (period versus wavelength) diagram at the right. Measurements of the Sun's oscillations provide a window into the invisible interior of the Sun allowing scientists to infer the structure and composition as well as the rotation and dynamics of the solar interior.
Interior Solar Cutaway ...
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Description Interior Solar Cutaway and Mode Diagram This sketch illustrates how sound waves propagate through the Sun's interior. Only waves with specific combinations of period and horizontal wavelength resonated within the Sun. The precise combinations are related to the Sun's interior structure; they produce the bright, fine-tuned "ridges" of greater power shown in the l-nu (period versus wavelength) diagram at the right. Measurements of the Sun's oscillations provide a window into the invisible interior of the Sun allowing scientists to infer the structure and composition as well as the rotation and dynamics of the solar interior.
LASCO C3 image of the large coronal mass ejection (CME) of 6 May 1998.
LASCO C3 image of the l...
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Description LASCO C3 image of the large coronal mass ejection (CME) of 6 May 1998.
MDI Single Dopplergram Minus 45 Image Average Subtracting an average solar velocity image observed over 45 minutes from a single velocity image reveals the surface motions associated with sound waves traveling through the Sun's interior. The smallscale light and dark regions represent the up and down motions of the hot gas near the Sun's surface. The pattern falls off towards the limb because the acoustic waves are primarily radial.
MDI Single Dopplergram ...
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Description MDI Single Dopplergram Minus 45 Image Average Subtracting an average solar velocity image observed over 45 minutes from a single velocity image reveals the surface motions associated with sound waves traveling through the Sun's interior. The smallscale light and dark regions represent the up and down motions of the hot gas near the Sun's surface. The pattern falls off towards the limb because the acoustic waves are primarily radial.
EIT 304Å image captures an elongated erupting prominence -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspend Joseph B. Gurman Normal Joseph B. Gurman 1 1 2001-06-13T15:57:00Z 2001-06-13T15:58:00Z 1 64 367 NASA GSGC 3 1 450 9.2511 800x600 0 0 EIT 304Å image captures an elongated erupting prominence -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended in the Sun's hot, thin corona. At times, they can erupt, escaping the Sun's atmosphere. Emission in this spectral line shows the upper chromosphere at a temperature of about 60,000 degrees K. The hottest areas appear almost white, while the darker red areas indicate cooler temperatures. Image taken 23 April  2001.
EIT 304Å image captures...
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Description EIT 304Å image captures an elongated erupting prominence -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspend Joseph B. Gurman Normal Joseph B. Gurman 1 1 2001-06-13T15:57:00Z 2001-06-13T15:58:00Z 1 64 367 NASA GSGC 3 1 450 9.2511 800x600 0 0 EIT 304Å image captures an elongated erupting prominence -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended in the Sun's hot, thin corona. At times, they can erupt, escaping the Sun's atmosphere. Emission in this spectral line shows the upper chromosphere at a temperature of about 60,000 degrees K. The hottest areas appear almost white, while the darker red areas indicate cooler temperatures. Image taken 23 April  2001.
MDI high resolution magnetogram overlaid with lines of convergence of the horizontal flow and with green dots showing the convergence points. The measured flow is shown as colored arrows, red for inferred downflow and blue for inferred upflow. The field is shown light grey for positive fields and dark for negative fields. Only field above the background noise is shown.
MDI high resolution mag...
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Description MDI high resolution magnetogram overlaid with lines of convergence of the horizontal flow and with green dots showing the convergence points. The measured flow is shown as colored arrows, red for inferred downflow and blue for inferred upflow. The field is shown light grey for positive fields and dark for negative fields. Only field above the background noise is shown.
LASCO C2 image of coronal streamers and a filament eruption taken on 21 August 96. In this picture of the normal K-corona (or electron corona, seen by the eye at eclipses), we see bright streamers on the east (left) limb, which are extensions of the faint, stream-like features seen in the C1 images. On the west (right) limb, the equatorial 'streamer,' quite usual at this time in the sunspot cycle, has brightened suddenly, with outward-gushing plasma, while above the horizontal streamer, a twisted mass of ionized gas, expelled from the lower atmosphere, and contorted by the magnetic fields that hold it together, is seen stretching across the field of view, from somewhere beneath the occulting disk, out to more than three million kilometers above the Sun's visible surface.
LASCO C2 image of coron...
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Description LASCO C2 image of coronal streamers and a filament eruption taken on 21 August 96. In this picture of the normal K-corona (or electron corona, seen by the eye at eclipses), we see bright streamers on the east (left) limb, which are extensions of the faint, stream-like features seen in the C1 images. On the west (right) limb, the equatorial 'streamer,' quite usual at this time in the sunspot cycle, has brightened suddenly, with outward-gushing plasma, while above the horizontal streamer, a twisted mass of ionized gas, expelled from the lower atmosphere, and contorted by the magnetic fields that hold it together, is seen stretching across the field of view, from somewhere beneath the occulting disk, out to more than three million kilometers above the Sun's visible surface.
Radial and latitudinal variations of the sound speed in the Sun as derived from MDI measurements. Red = hotter regions than in standard model, blue = cooler regions. Concentric layers in a cutaway image show oddities in the speed of sound in the deep interior of the Sun, as gauged by two instruments. MDI measures vertical motions due to sound waves reverberating through the Sun, at a million points on the visible surface. VIRGO detects the solar oscillations by rhythmic variations in the Sun's brightness, a rapid change in the speed of rotation about the Sun's axis, between the faster-turning outer region and the slower interior.
Radial and latitudinal ...
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Description Radial and latitudinal variations of the sound speed in the Sun as derived from MDI measurements. Red = hotter regions than in standard model, blue = cooler regions. Concentric layers in a cutaway image show oddities in the speed of sound in the deep interior of the Sun, as gauged by two instruments. MDI measures vertical motions due to sound waves reverberating through the Sun, at a million points on the visible surface. VIRGO detects the solar oscillations by rhythmic variations in the Sun's brightness, a rapid change in the speed of rotation about the Sun's axis, between the faster-turning outer region and the slower interior.
Radial and latitudinal variations of the sound speed in the Sun as derived from MDI measurements. Red = hotter regions than in standard model, blue = cooler regions. Concentric layers in a cutaway image show oddities in the speed of sound in the deep interior of the Sun, as gauged by two instruments. MDI measures vertical motions due to sound waves reverberating through the Sun, at a million points on the visible surface. VIRGO detects the solar oscillations by rhythmic variations in the Sun's brightness, a rapid change in the speed of rotation about the Sun's axis, between the faster-turning outer region and the slower interior.
Radial and latitudinal ...
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Description Radial and latitudinal variations of the sound speed in the Sun as derived from MDI measurements. Red = hotter regions than in standard model, blue = cooler regions. Concentric layers in a cutaway image show oddities in the speed of sound in the deep interior of the Sun, as gauged by two instruments. MDI measures vertical motions due to sound waves reverberating through the Sun, at a million points on the visible surface. VIRGO detects the solar oscillations by rhythmic variations in the Sun's brightness, a rapid change in the speed of rotation about the Sun's axis, between the faster-turning outer region and the slower interior.
Streaming plasma slides above the surface of the Sun, in EIT 304 (March 18, 1997)
Streaming plasma slides...
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Description Streaming plasma slides above the surface of the Sun, in EIT 304 (March 18, 1997)
An eruption seen over the limb in the extreme-ultraviolet emission line of Oxygen V at 630 Angstroms. This CDS image shows material streaming back at high velocity onto the disk after the eruption. The left image shows intensity, while the middle and right show the Doppler velocity and width respectively. The blue color of the middle image represents material moving at greater than 200 kilometers per second toward the Sun. In the right image, the unresolved motions represented by the Doppler width reach as high as 300 kilometers per second.
An eruption seen over t...
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Description An eruption seen over the limb in the extreme-ultraviolet emission line of Oxygen V at 630 Angstroms. This CDS image shows material streaming back at high velocity onto the disk after the eruption. The left image shows intensity, while the middle and right show the Doppler velocity and width respectively. The blue color of the middle image represents material moving at greater than 200 kilometers per second toward the Sun. In the right image, the unresolved motions represented by the Doppler width reach as high as 300 kilometers per second.
Fireworks in sequence from four instruments – This CME, part of a series of 5 CMEs in late November 2000, shows its progress fr Joseph B. Gurman Normal Joseph B. Gurman 1 0 2001-02-02T20:43:00Z 2001-02-02T20:43:00Z 1 42 245 NASA GSGC 2 1 300 9.2511 800x600 0 0 Fireworks in sequence from four instruments – This CME, part of a series of 5 CMEs in late November 2000, shows its progress from a sunspot group (MDI), to the flash of a flare (EIT 195Å), to a blasting CME seen 14 hours later (LASCO C2), and to a large expanding CME cloud over three hours later.
Fireworks in sequence f...
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Description Fireworks in sequence from four instruments – This CME, part of a series of 5 CMEs in late November 2000, shows its progress fr Joseph B. Gurman Normal Joseph B. Gurman 1 0 2001-02-02T20:43:00Z 2001-02-02T20:43:00Z 1 42 245 NASA GSGC 2 1 300 9.2511 800x600 0 0 Fireworks in sequence from four instruments – This CME, part of a series of 5 CMEs in late November 2000, shows its progress from a sunspot group (MDI), to the flash of a flare (EIT 195Å), to a blasting CME seen 14 hours later (LASCO C2), and to a large expanding CME cloud over three hours later.
Blasting CME -- This LASCO C2 image, taken 8 January 2002, shows a widely spreading coronal mass ejection (CME) shooting billi Joseph B. Gurman Normal Joseph B. Gurman 2 1 2003-04-07T18:42:00Z 2003-04-07T18:42:00Z 1 NASA GSGC 1 1 9.2511 800x600 0 0 Sunspot series -- This was the largest sunspot group of this solar cycle as it moved with the Sun's rotation. On 30 March 2001, the sunspot area within the group (called active region 9393) extended across an area more than 13 times the diameter of the Earth  It yielded numerous flares and coronal mass ejections, including the largest X-ray flare recorded in 25 years on 2 April 2001, the last image in the series. Caused by intense magnetic fields emerging from the interior, a sunspot appears to be dark only when contrasted against the rest of the solar surface, because it is slightly cooler than the unmarked regions.
Blasting CME -- This LA...
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Description Blasting CME -- This LASCO C2 image, taken 8 January 2002, shows a widely spreading coronal mass ejection (CME) shooting billi Joseph B. Gurman Normal Joseph B. Gurman 2 1 2003-04-07T18:42:00Z 2003-04-07T18:42:00Z 1 NASA GSGC 1 1 9.2511 800x600 0 0 Sunspot series -- This was the largest sunspot group of this solar cycle as it moved with the Sun's rotation. On 30 March 2001, the sunspot area within the group (called active region 9393) extended across an area more than 13 times the diameter of the Earth  It yielded numerous flares and coronal mass ejections, including the largest X-ray flare recorded in 25 years on 2 April 2001, the last image in the series. Caused by intense magnetic fields emerging from the interior, a sunspot appears to be dark only when contrasted against the rest of the solar surface, because it is slightly cooler than the unmarked regions.
The sun?s 11 year solar cycle as reflected by the number of sunspots recorded to date and as projected (dotted line). Selected EIT 195Å and MDI magnetogram images are shown. In this cycle the Sun undergoes a period of activity called the "solar maximum", followed by a period of quiet called the "solar minimum." The rising level can be clearly seen in the comparison of EIT and MDI images. The current cycle, Cycle 23, is the 23rd systematically recorded since sunspot observations began in the 17th century.
The sun?s 11 year solar...
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Description The sun?s 11 year solar cycle as reflected by the number of sunspots recorded to date and as projected (dotted line). Selected EIT 195Å and MDI magnetogram images are shown. In this cycle the Sun undergoes a period of activity called the "solar maximum", followed by a period of quiet called the "solar minimum." The rising level can be clearly seen in the comparison of EIT and MDI images. The current cycle, Cycle 23, is the 23rd systematically recorded since sunspot observations began in the 17th century.
SWAN Lyman-alpha whole sky map in ecliptic coordinates. Two areas were not covered for safety reasons, around the Sun and around the anti-solar direction. The color is coding the intensity, in counts per second per pixel (one square degree), which corresponds to 1.3 Rayleigh. A number of UV hot stars can be identified, tracing the galactic plane. The rest of the ubiquitous emission is due to solar UV Lyman alpha photons, backscattered by Hydrogen atoms in the solar system. These H atoms are coming from interstellar space, and are approaching the Sun down to about 2 AU, in the direction of the incoming flow (ecliptic coordinates, longitude 254 deg, latitude 7 deg). A maximum of Lyman-alpha intensity surrounds this upwind direction. In the opposite direction, the emission is weaker by a factor of 3.5, because most atoms have been destroyed by charge-exchange with solar wind protons, creating a cavity void of Hydrogen atoms in the downwind direction. A detailed comparison of such Lyman-alpha maps will allow to determine the solar wind mass flux at all ecliptic latitudes.
SWAN Lyman-alpha whole ...
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Description SWAN Lyman-alpha whole sky map in ecliptic coordinates. Two areas were not covered for safety reasons, around the Sun and around the anti-solar direction. The color is coding the intensity, in counts per second per pixel (one square degree), which corresponds to 1.3 Rayleigh. A number of UV hot stars can be identified, tracing the galactic plane. The rest of the ubiquitous emission is due to solar UV Lyman alpha photons, backscattered by Hydrogen atoms in the solar system. These H atoms are coming from interstellar space, and are approaching the Sun down to about 2 AU, in the direction of the incoming flow (ecliptic coordinates, longitude 254 deg, latitude 7 deg). A maximum of Lyman-alpha intensity surrounds this upwind direction. In the opposite direction, the emission is weaker by a factor of 3.5, because most atoms have been destroyed by charge-exchange with solar wind protons, creating a cavity void of Hydrogen atoms in the downwind direction. A detailed comparison of such Lyman-alpha maps will allow to determine the solar wind mass flux at all ecliptic latitudes.
SWAN Lyman-alpha whole sky map in ecliptic coordinates. Two areas were not covered for safety reasons, around the Sun (at left) and around the anti-solar direction (at right). The color is coding the intensity, in counts per second per pixel (one square degree), which corresponds to 1.3 Rayleigh. A number of UV hot stars can be identified, tracing the galactic plane. The rest of the ubiquitous emission is due to solar UV Lyman alpha photons, backscattered by Hydrogen atoms in the solar system. These H atoms are coming from interstellar space, and are approaching the Sun down to about 2 AU, in the direction of the incoming flow (ecliptic coordinates, longitude 254 deg, latitude 7 deg). A maximum of Lyman-alpha intensity surrounds this upwind direction. In the opposite direction, the emission is weaker by a factor of 3.5, because most atoms have been destroyed by charge-exchange with solar wind protons, creating a cavity void of Hydrogen atoms in the downwind direction. A detailed comparison of such Lyman-alpha maps will allow to determine the solar wind mass flux at all ecliptic latitudes.
SWAN Lyman-alpha whole ...
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Description SWAN Lyman-alpha whole sky map in ecliptic coordinates. Two areas were not covered for safety reasons, around the Sun (at left) and around the anti-solar direction (at right). The color is coding the intensity, in counts per second per pixel (one square degree), which corresponds to 1.3 Rayleigh. A number of UV hot stars can be identified, tracing the galactic plane. The rest of the ubiquitous emission is due to solar UV Lyman alpha photons, backscattered by Hydrogen atoms in the solar system. These H atoms are coming from interstellar space, and are approaching the Sun down to about 2 AU, in the direction of the incoming flow (ecliptic coordinates, longitude 254 deg, latitude 7 deg). A maximum of Lyman-alpha intensity surrounds this upwind direction. In the opposite direction, the emission is weaker by a factor of 3.5, because most atoms have been destroyed by charge-exchange with solar wind protons, creating a cavity void of Hydrogen atoms in the downwind direction. A detailed comparison of such Lyman-alpha maps will allow to determine the solar wind mass flux at all ecliptic latitudes.
SWAN Lyman?alpha full sky reduction factor (in ecliptic coordinates).
SWAN Lyman?alpha full s...
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Description SWAN Lyman?alpha full sky reduction factor (in ecliptic coordinates).
With the help of an absorption Hydrogen cell, SWAN can also provide a measurement of the radial velocity of H atoms with respect to SOHO. This image can therefore be interpreted as a "Dopplergramme" of the H Lyman-alpha interplanetary emission. The radial velocity is zero where the effect of the absorption cell is maximum (minimum value of the Reduction factor which is the ratio of the Lyman-alpha intensity when the H cell is ON to the intensity when the H cell is OFF). The color code indicates radial velocities. It can be noted that the Ly-alpha emission of the Geocorona is also strongly absorbed.
With the help of an abs...
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Description With the help of an absorption Hydrogen cell, SWAN can also provide a measurement of the radial velocity of H atoms with respect to SOHO. This image can therefore be interpreted as a "Dopplergramme" of the H Lyman-alpha interplanetary emission. The radial velocity is zero where the effect of the absorption cell is maximum (minimum value of the Reduction factor which is the ratio of the Lyman-alpha intensity when the H cell is ON to the intensity when the H cell is OFF). The color code indicates radial velocities. It can be noted that the Ly-alpha emission of the Geocorona is also strongly absorbed.
The Sun observed by SUMER on 2 February 1996 in the emission line of Ne VIII at 770.4 A, formed in the lower corona at about 600,000 K. The picture was put together from 8 horizontal raster scans in alternating directions and of different length, starting in the solar SE. Each raster scan includes 664 to 1074 exposures, each lasting 7.5 s. The picture is shown in bins of 3x3 pixels, one pixel being approx. 1 arcsec^2. The brightest pixels in this picture correspond to an intensity of approx. 260 counts/line/arcsec^2, whereas the intensity is generally below 40. The avera intensity on the disk is around 6 counts/line/arcsec^2.
The Sun observed by SUM...
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Description The Sun observed by SUMER on 2 February 1996 in the emission line of Ne VIII at 770.4 A, formed in the lower corona at about 600,000 K. The picture was put together from 8 horizontal raster scans in alternating directions and of different length, starting in the solar SE. Each raster scan includes 664 to 1074 exposures, each lasting 7.5 s. The picture is shown in bins of 3x3 pixels, one pixel being approx. 1 arcsec^2. The brightest pixels in this picture correspond to an intensity of approx. 260 counts/line/arcsec^2, whereas the intensity is generally below 40. The avera intensity on the disk is around 6 counts/line/arcsec^2.
EIT 304Å image of a huge, handle-shaped prominence taken on Sept. 14, 1999 -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended in the Sun's hot, thin corona. At times, they can erupt, escaping the Sun's atmosphere. Emission in this spectral line shows the upper chromosphere at a temperature of about 60,000 degrees K. Every feature in the image traces magnetic field structure. The hottest areas appear almost white, while the darker red areas indicate cooler temperatures.
EIT 304Å image of a hug...
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Description EIT 304Å image of a huge, handle-shaped prominence taken on Sept. 14, 1999 -- Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended in the Sun's hot, thin corona. At times, they can erupt, escaping the Sun's atmosphere. Emission in this spectral line shows the upper chromosphere at a temperature of about 60,000 degrees K. Every feature in the image traces magnetic field structure. The hottest areas appear almost white, while the darker red areas indicate cooler temperatures.
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Description No Caption.
The parts of the Sun. This gives a basic overview of the Sun?s parts. The three major interior zones are the core (the innermost part of the Sun where energy is generated by nuclear reactions), the radiative zone (where energy travels outward by radiation through about 70% of the Sun), and the convection zone (in which convection currents circulate the Sun?s energy to the surface). The flare, sunspots and photosphere, chromosphere, and the prominence are all clipped from actual SOHO images of the Sun.
The parts of the Sun. T...
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Description The parts of the Sun. This gives a basic overview of the Sun?s parts. The three major interior zones are the core (the innermost part of the Sun where energy is generated by nuclear reactions), the radiative zone (where energy travels outward by radiation through about 70% of the Sun), and the convection zone (in which convection currents circulate the Sun?s energy to the surface). The flare, sunspots and photosphere, chromosphere, and the prominence are all clipped from actual SOHO images of the Sun.
The subsurface structure (sound speed) below a sunspot as derived from Doppler measurements by MDI. Using the technique of time-distance helioseismology, three planes are shown. The surface intensity shows the sunspot with the dark central umbra surrounded by the somewhat brighter, filamentary penumbra. The second plane cuts from the surface to 24000 km deep showing areas of faster sound speed as reddish colors and slower sound speed as bluish colors. The third plane (bottom) is a horizontal cut at a depth of 22000 km showing the horizontal variation of sound speed.
The subsurface structur...
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Description The subsurface structure (sound speed) below a sunspot as derived from Doppler measurements by MDI. Using the technique of time-distance helioseismology, three planes are shown. The surface intensity shows the sunspot with the dark central umbra surrounded by the somewhat brighter, filamentary penumbra. The second plane cuts from the surface to 24000 km deep showing areas of faster sound speed as reddish colors and slower sound speed as bluish colors. The third plane (bottom) is a horizontal cut at a depth of 22000 km showing the horizontal variation of sound speed.
The Sun observed by SUMER on 2-4 March 1996 in the emission line of He I at 584.3 A, formed in the upper chromosphere at about 20,000 K. The picture was put together from eight horizontal raster scans in alternating directions, starting in the solar NE. Each raster scan includes 1600 exposures, lasting 7 seconds each. The picture is shown in bins of 4x4 pixels, one pixel being approx. 1 arcsec. The brightest pixels correspond to an intensity of more than 70 counts/line/arcsec (with a maximum of approx. 200), while the average is around 10.
The Sun observed by SUM...
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Description The Sun observed by SUMER on 2-4 March 1996 in the emission line of He I at 584.3 A, formed in the upper chromosphere at about 20,000 K. The picture was put together from eight horizontal raster scans in alternating directions, starting in the solar NE. Each raster scan includes 1600 exposures, lasting 7 seconds each. The picture is shown in bins of 4x4 pixels, one pixel being approx. 1 arcsec. The brightest pixels correspond to an intensity of more than 70 counts/line/arcsec (with a maximum of approx. 200), while the average is around 10.
The Sun observed by SUMER on 12/13 May 1996 in the emission line of S VI at 933 A, formed in the transition region at about 200,000 K. The picture was put together from 9256 raster images with an exposure time of 3 s each, collected in eight alternating horizontal scans across the Sun.
The Sun observed by SUM...
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Description The Sun observed by SUMER on 12/13 May 1996 in the emission line of S VI at 933 A, formed in the transition region at about 200,000 K. The picture was put together from 9256 raster images with an exposure time of 3 s each, collected in eight alternating horizontal scans across the Sun.
SUMER image in S VI at 933 Å on 1996 May 12. The Sun observed by SUMER in the emission line of S VI at 933 A, formed in the transition region at about 200,000 K. The picture was put together from 9256 raster images with an exposure time of 3 s each, collected in eight alternating horizontal scans across the Sun.
SUMER image in S VI at ...
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Description SUMER image in S VI at 933 Å on 1996 May 12. The Sun observed by SUMER in the emission line of S VI at 933 A, formed in the transition region at about 200,000 K. The picture was put together from 9256 raster images with an exposure time of 3 s each, collected in eight alternating horizontal scans across the Sun.
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