ISS010-E-23451 (7 April 2005) --- Khartoum, Sudan is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 10 crewmember on the International Space Station (ISS). Sudan?s capital city Khartoum, which means Elephant?s Trunk, describes the shape of the Nile River where the Blue and the White Nile Rivers meet to form the united Nile that flows northward into Egypt. This image shows the rivers near the end of the dry season. The White Nile (western branch) runs through Sudan from Uganda. The White Nile?s equatorial source produces a flow that runs at a nearly constant rate throughout the year. The nearly dry Blue Nile from the highlands of Ethiopia swells in the late summer and early fall with rains from the summer monsoons. The flow can be so great the Nile flows backward at the junction. In recent years, floods in Khartoum have occurred in August with heavy monsoon rainfall. Khartoum is one of the largest Muslim cities in North Africa, but has a fairly short history.
International Space Sta...
ISS009-E-23808 (20 September 2004) --- A fringing coral reef in the Red Sea is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 9 crewmember on the International Space Station (ISS). The Sudanese coast of the Red Sea is a well known destination for divers due to clear water and abundance of coral reefs (or ?shia?ab? in Arabic). According to NASA scientists studying the ISS imagery, reefs are formed primarily from precipitation of calcium carbonate by corals; massive reef structures are built over thousands of years of succeeding generations of coral. In the Red Sea, fringing reefs form on shallow shelves of less than 50 meters depth along the coastline. This photograph illustrates the intricate morphology of the reef system located along the coast between Port Sudan to the northwest and the Tokar River delta to the southeast. Close to shore, fringing reefs border the coastline. Farther offshore grows a larger, more complicated barrier reef structure. Different parts of the reef structure show up as variable shades of light blue. Deeper water channels (darker blue) define the boundaries for individual reefs within the greater barrier reef system. Such a complex pattern of reefs may translate into greater ecosystem diversity through a wide variety of local reef environments.
STS-87 Shuttle Mission ...
STS087-717-088 (19 November ? 5 December 1997) --- Featured in this view are Sudan?s agricultural projects dependent on irrigation. Just southeast of the confluence of the Blue and White Nile rivers (and the city of Khartoum) is one of the largest irrigation projects in the world, known as the Gezira Scheme. The economy of Sudan is largely based on agriculture. The Gezira Scheme was begun by the British in 1925 and distributes water from the Blue Nile through canals and ditches to tenant farms lying between the Blue and White Nile rivers. Farmers cooperate with the Sudanese government and the Gezira Board. This network of canals and ditches is 2,700 miles (4,300 kilometers) long, and the irrigated area covers 2.5 million acres (1 million hectares). The main crop grown in this region is cotton. This picture is one of the 70mm Earth observations visuals used by the crew at its post flight presentation events.
STS-108 Shuttle Mission...
STS108-718-041 (5-17 December 2001) --- The triangular Sinai Peninsula of Egypt appears below the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm2 in the foreground (right), with the Gulf of Suez to its west (far right) and the Gulf of Aqaba (center bottom). These gulfs join to become the Red Sea, which stretches away south to the horizon down the left side of this south-looking view. Saudi Arabia lies to the left and Egypt and Sudan to the right. The photo, from a 70mm handheld camera, was made while the Space Shuttle Endeavouor was docked with the International Space Station (ISS).
STS-111 Shuttle Mission...
STS111-321-024 (5-19 June 2002) --- This sunset over the Sahara Desert was photographed by the STS-111 crew members aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. When this photograph was taken, the shuttle was in a position over the Sudan near the Red Sea coast. The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth provides searchable access to other photographs of Earth taken by astronauts. More Earth Observation Images
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